Diaries of Kandahar:1891-1892 (vol 5 – 4 of 5)

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News. D.No. 267 F. No.3735, dated Quetta, the 30th June 1892.
From-Major-General Sir James Browne, K.C.S.I., C.B., R.E., Agent to the governor-general in Baluchistan,
To-The Secretary to the Government of India, Foreign Department.
News-letter No. 26,
By Khan Bahadur Mirza Muahmmad Takki Khan, 25th June 1892.

8. The Governor is said to be encamped at Mehrabad in the Tirin district. Muhammad Sadik Khan has also joined the Governor with the force under him. The Governor has sent a letter to his son, Muhammad Asman Khan, saying that the Hazaras of Chureh have submitted a humble petition asking for forgiveness. The letter adds that some of the elders of Garmab have been sent to assure the Hazaras and induce them to surrender. Sardar Abdul Kudus is said to be in camp with his troops at Shewi; no regular engagement appears to have taken place between the Sardar’s force and the Hazaras. It is, however, reported that the Hazaras often attack and plunder individual sepoys from the Sardar’s force. The Hazaras are also in the habit of attacking and wounding and killing the guards sent with the transport animals to graze them. Sardar Abdul Kudus Khan is said to brand any tribal sowars on the forehead who desert his camp, and are subsequently caught. This is done as a mark of cowardice. The tribal sowars, who desert to the Kandahar district, are arrested and brought before the son of the Governor, who orders each of them to pay a fine of Rs.110, and also to refund any payment he may have received from the ryots for his service. After this has been done, the man is placed in imprisonment.

 

 

News.D.No.285 F. No. 4065, dated Quetta, the 9th July 1892.
From-Major-General Sir James Browne, K.C.S.I., C.B., R.E., Agent to the governor-general in Baluchistan,
To-The Secretary to the Government of India, Foreign Department.
News-letter,No,27,
By Khan Bahadur Mirza Muhammad Takki Khan, 2nd July 1892.

A letter has been addressed by His Highness the Amir to the Durani Khans of Kandahar, the purport of which is as follows:- “I received your letter, informing me that you were doing all in your power to collect and send to Urzagan as many tribal sowars as possible. I am highly pleased with the zeal and energy displayed by you on this occasion. Ten thousand men are to be collected from Kandahar and its vicinity for the Urzagan expedition. My object in conquering Urzagan is merely to secure a strong and naturally fortified position for you, Duranis. For, I observed that you are subject to aggression from the infidels on both sides. If you are asleep, you must wake up.” His Highness adds that he has ordered 100,000 men, consisting both of regulars and tribal levies, to be sent against the Urzagan rebels.

2. It is reported that an engagement took place at Chilleh Kur between Sardar Abdul Kudus Khan’s force and the Hazaras. In this skirmish 100 regulars are reported to have been killed, and the tribal force is said to have lost a large number in killed and wounded. A portion of Sardar Abdul Kudus Khan’s commissariat is also reported to have been plundered by the Hazaras. Supplies are now being despatched to Kalat for Abdul Kudus Khan’s camp. The reason why the supplies are being sent to Kalat and not direct to the Sardar’s camp is not known. Some people, however, say that the cause is due to the fact that the Hazaras have, on more than one occasion, plundered the supplies at Chilleh Kur, so that they have now been forwarded to Kalat, whence they will be issued piece meal as they are required. Others, however, assert that, as Abdul Kudus is shortly expected to return to Kalat, stores are being concentrated there.

3. A consignment of 2,000 cannon balls has been sent from here for the artillery at Farrah. It is rumoured here that Mauladad Khan has collected a large body of tribal levies from Farrah, and intends now to proceed to Pusht-i-rud-Helmand to recruit tribal sowars there as ordered by His Highness the Amir. No force had up to that date been furnished by that district. The inhabitants of those parts seem to have had one eye on the Herat frontier and the other on the Urzagan rebellion, and therefore are waiting for the result before supplying their quota to the tribal force.

4. A company of the Khassadars, who were Hazaras, was stationed at Kadanai. They have now been recalled to Kandahar. The cause of their recall is that an affray took place between these Khassadars and the Achakzais, who were in the habit of exporting grain to Chaman. One Khassadar was wounded and one Achakzai killed. This alarmed the Khassadars so much that they were unable to remain in the Achakzai country. There were besides no Khassadars in Kandahar for ordinary civil business. The day that these Khassadars arrived at Kandahar, the Governor’s son ordered them to give up their guns, on the ground that they were to be distributed to the regular soldiers, who had no guns. This the Khassadars declined to do, as they said they had received their guns at Kabul in the presence of His Highness the Amir, and they would not part with them without special orders from the latter. For the present they have been permitted to retain their arms, but have been sent on duty to various places.

5. A number of Jawali Hazaras came to Kandahar form Quetta the other day. They were brought before the authorities, who asked them why they had gone to Quetta. They replied that they had been there in quest of labour, and were now determined to go to their homes. On this they were ordered to be placed in custody in the Kotwali, and have been called upon to was forthcoming, they are to remain in confinement .

6. Orders have been issued, directing the ryots to bring one-fourth of the revenue in kind to the Governor’s camp, making their own arrangements for the transport of the grain. This has caused the people great trouble and inconvenience, because merely for conveying 5 or 10 Kandahari maunds (20 or 40 seers) of grain they have to send a man and an animal to Hazara.

9. The Governor is encamped at Mehrabad in the Tirin district. He has written to his son, Muhammad Usman Khan, to the following effect:-

“I despatched a force, consisting of 800 tribal sowars, to Kila Maksud Beg with one company of regular infantry and two guns under the command of Colonel Nur Ahmed Khan. An engagement took place between this force and the Hazaras, who had gathered near Kila Maksud Beg. The fighting lasted from 9 a.m. to 1 p.m., and resulted in the defeat of the Hazaras.”

This letter was read out in the Kandahar Darbar for public information

It is stated that some notables of the Hazaras of Chureh came in to the Governor and asked to be forgiven. They expressed a hope that the Governor would be so kind as to present “khilats” to them as a mark of honour. The Governor, however, having no confidence in their sincerity, told them that their submission only entitled them to be forgiven for their former misbehaviour. He added that, if they wished to be presented with khilats, they should go and bring their fellow tribesmen back with them to pay their respects to the Governor, and also bring ghee, sacks and other stores for the use of the camp.

The Hazaras asked to be allowed to go away, and comply with the Governor’s orders, on which they were allowed to return to their country, but they have not come back since.

 

 

News. D.No. 295 F. No. 4205, dated Quetta, the 15th July 1892.
From-Major-General Sir James Browne, K.C.S.I., C.B., R.E., Agent to the governor-general in Baluchistan,
To-The Secretary to the Government of India, Foreign Department.
News-letter, No. 28,
By Khan Bahadur Mirza Muhammad Takki Khan, 9th July 1892.

3. The Governor is still encamped at Gokchal Mehrabad in the Tirin district. He has sent a letter to Mir Muhammad Azim Khan, son of Alizai Khan, and other Hazara notables, the purport of which is as follows:-

“I have ascertained that Sardar Abdul Kudus Khan and his officers have exercised great tyranny over you, Hazaras, notwithstanding your submission to the rule of His Highness the Amir, and thus compelled you to rise in rebellion against him. It is now my intention to relieve you of the charge of disloyalty. I solemnly promise to you by the sacred Koran, and pledge myself that you will not be subjected to such tyranny and oppression in future. Should you be willing to listen to my advice, and relinquish the hostile attitude assumed by you, you should depute two or three trusty Chiefs to me, so as to enable me to effect a mutual compromise and reconciliation between you and His Highness the Amir.”

The reply received from Mir Muhammad Azim Khan and the other Hazara Chiefs was to the following effect:-

“We have no confidence in your words. When you were not calling us infidels and had even entered into a treaty with us, you behaved so cruelly and tyrannically towards us that you admit it now yourself. Now that you have declared us to be infidels, what sort of treatment we may expect at your hands is self-evident.

“Under the circumstances we are resolved to defend ourselves as long as we live, and will resist to the bitter end.”

Notwithstanding the nature of this reply, the Governor is still doing all in his power to conciliate the Hazaras and put an end to the rebellion without further bloodshed.

 

 

News. D.No.303 F. No.4315, dated Quetta, the 21st July 1892.
From-Major-General Sir James Browne, K.C.S.I., C.B.,R.E., Agent to the governor-general in Baluchistan,
To-The Secretary to the Government of India, Foreign Department.
News-letter,No.29,
By Khan Bahadur Mirza Muhammad Takki Khan, 16th July 1892.

7. It is rumoured from a letter received by the Governor that General Mir Atta Khan has possessed himself of Daya and Faulad, and that he has also succeeded in capturing nine posts belonging to Hazara rebels of the Sazawali and Sultan Ahmad districts.

It is further reported that the Commander-in-Chief, Ghulam Haidar Khan, has moved with the Turkistan troops to the northern districts of the Hazara country, and has now surrounded Urzagan. This information is, however, but little credited, and is believed to be a mere blind.

8. The Governor is said to be still encamped at Kokcha in the Mehrabad district of Tirin, and he is sending emissaries to the Hazaras of the Tirin district, with the object of inducing them to submit without further resistance. A dispute is said to have arisen between the Governor’s orderlies and the troops under command of Brigadier Muhammad Sadik Khan. This quarrel has caused ill-feeling between the Governor and the Brigadier, and they are now at variance with one another. The Governor, however, is said to have gone to Muhammad Sadik’s camp, and asked his forgiveness for what had occurred.

9. About 40 women and children of the Hazaras residing in the neighbourhood of Kalat-i-Ghilzai have been brought to Kandahar. These are the families of those Hazaras who live close to Kalat, and have shown no signs of disaffection up to the present, and are even now serving the Amir’s Government. The families of these men have been brought to Kandahar as hostages in order to ensure the allegiance and good behaviour of the Hazaras employed in His Highness’ service.

 

 

News.D.No. 318 F. No.4506, dated Quetta, the 29th July 1892.
From-Major-General Sir James Browne, K.C.S.I., C.B., R.E., Agent to the governor-general in Baluchistan,
To-The Secretary to the Government of India, Foreign Department.
23rd News-letter.No.30.
By Khan Bahadur Mirza Muhammad Takki Khan, July 1892.

1. Ghulam Sarwar Khan, Muhammadzai, the former Hakim of Kilat-i-Ghilzai, accompanied the Governor to the Urzagan expedition and was appointed to the command of the tribal levies. He has now, under the orders of His Highness the Amir, been brought to Kandahar under a cavalry escort on his way to Kabul. The reason is that Diwan Sadanand has reported that he embezzled Government property to the value of Rs. 50,000. He is, therefore, being sent to Kabul to answer the charge.

5. Sardar Fakir Muhammad Khan, Hakim of Kalat-i-Ghilzai, has written to Sadanand saying that on the 17th day of Zulhaj (13th July) he accompanied by one company of regulars and 600 tribal sowars left Shawi for Dareh Dadzai, which is a naturally fortified position, the letter adds that his party attacked the Hazaras who were holding the position. The engagement commenced at midday and lasted till evening. The Hazaras, However, fled during the night, and Dareh Dadzai was occupied by the Afghans. A large quantity of grain fell into the hands of the victorious troops. The party was constantly harassed by the Hazaras of that part of the country; but now that the place has been occupied by Afghan troops, the cattle and camp followers will be in the midst of ease and plenty, and fodder will be obtainable in large quantities.

6. The Governor is still in camp at Kokchal in the Mehrabad district. He has received orders from His Highness the Amir to be most careful and cautious in his conduct of Hazara affairs. His Highness adds that the matter at first was of a trifling nature, but has now become serious, and is even being discussed by foreign powers. “God forbid that it should throw the Afghan Government into disrepute,”

The Governor appeared from the first to display timidity in conducting the Urzagan expedition and to be over-cautious with regard to it. Now these orders from His Highness the Amir have afforded him an excuse for pacific measures. He is constantly sending messengers to the Hazaras with a view to their submission. The negotiations however have not yet come to anything.

It is rumoured that His Highness the Amir has directed that a general attack be made on the Urzagan Hazaras at the end of the month Zulhaj (about 26th July). This is because the reply from the Hazaras is of anything but a conciliatory nature, and they will not consent to His Highness the Amir’s troops entering their country.

 

 

Diaries. D.No.333 F. No. 4724, dated Quetta, the 6th August 1892.
From-Major-General Sir James Browne, K.C.S.I., C.B., R.E.,Agent to the governor-general in Baluchistan,
To-The Secretary to the Government of India, Foreign Department.
News-letter No. 31,
By Khan Bahadur Mirza Muhammad Takki Khan, 30th July 1892.

1. Letters have been received from the Governor this week on the subject of his movement from Mehrabad towards Kemsan, and the engagements which had taken place between his force and the Hazaras. In his first letter which reached Kandahar on the 24th July, the Governor states as follows:-

“I left Kokcha for Kemsan, leaving 300 men behind me to garrison the place. I ordered the commissariat and arsenal to be sent to Kila Rak in charge of 200 soldiers. The distance between Rak fort and Kemsan being 16 miles.”

The Governor adds–“After my departure a large number of Hazaras attacked the garrison I had left behind at Kokchal. After a sharp skirmish, the Hazaras were defeated with great loss. A great number of horses and arms belonging to the latter fell into our hands.”

Another letter was received from the Governor on the evening of the 24th July, with ten heads taken from the Hazara rebels. These heads were placed on spears and taken round the bazar. Afterwards a pillar was erected, and these heads were displayed upon it. The purport of the second letter from the Governor is as follows:-

“While in the Nuri district, a body of Hazaras, amounting to 5,000 horse and foot, appeared in front of my camp, and a hand to hand conflict ensued. The regular troops and the ghazis, as well as the artillery, engaged the enemy very bravely. The successive rounds of artillery compelled the rebels to take to flight. The latter left a large number of killed and wounded on the field. The ghazis cut the heads off ten of the infidel Hazaras, which are being sent to Kandahar to be displayed on a pillar there.”

A third letter was received from the Governor on the 28th July, which runs as follows:-

“The Hazaras of Kemsan had thrown up a strong entrenched position at the mouth of the Kemsan pass. A force composed of 6 companies of infantry, 4 companies of Khassadars, 600 tribal sowars, and 2 troops of cavalry with 6 guns, was directed to storm the entrenchment. The place was attacked with great vigour, and after a furious engagement, our troops succeeded in capturing the position. The rebels were defeated with great slaughter. Subsequently I myself and Brigadier Sadik Khan visited the entrenchment. Our force pursued the enemy for three miles through the pass inflicting severe loss upon them. I however recalled the pursuers. Large quantities of grain, such as wheat, flour and jowar, fell into the hands of the tribal sowars of Tirin, which will be most useful. By God’s help we will enter the Kemsan district soon. No enemy can have remained there.”

Nothing, however, is mentioned by the Governor regarding his own losses in killed and wounded. The people state that the troops under the Governor have sustained a severe defeat in their engagement with the Hazaras, and that the latter have overthrown the tribal force, and captured a large quantity of ammunition. This news they attribute to some wounded tribal sowars who have been sent back to Kandahar.

4. The inhabitants of Kandahar have been called upon to subscribe money towards defraying the pay of the tribal levies engaged in the Urzagan expedition. The tribal forces already in Urzagan are either to be replaced by fresh tribal sowars or pay sent them from Kandahar. The rate of payment for each tribal sowar is 20 Kandahari rupees per mensem. Besides this, Rs. 5 is extorted by the officials as commission for collecting the money on the pay of each sowar. The people have been reduced to great extremity and oppression in consequence of the order. In fact, the money thus collected will go neither into the sowar’s pocket, nor into His Highness the Amir’s treasury. It will remain the perquisite of the rapacious officials.

 

 

News. D.No.341 F. No.4800, dated Quetta, the 12th August 1892.
From-Major-General Sir James Browne, K.C.S.I., C.B.,R.E., Agent to the governor-general in Baluchistan,
To-The Secretary to the Government of India, Foreign Department.
News-letter.No. 32.
By Khan Bahadur Mirza Muhammad Taki Khan, 6th August 1892.

3. It appears from the statements of recent arrivals from the Governor’s camp that the Governor and the force under his command are being greatly harassed by the Hazaras. They add that a Hazara Chief, named Zafar Ata, attacked Fort Rak with a body of horse, and succeeded in plundering and taking away all the ammunition stored there. He also took eighteen sowars of the regular cavalry prisoners. Another man, who says that he has come from the camp of Mir Muhammad Azim Beg, son of Alizai Khan, who has now been selected by the Urzagan Hazaras as their principal Chief, states that when Muhammad Azim Beg heard of the Governor’s approach to the Kemsan district, he sent word to the Kemsan Chiefs to allow the Governor to enter their country without opposition, and directed that they themselves should retire to their mountain fastnesses. This the Kemsan Hazaras did, and when the Governor entered Nawa Kemsan, one, Mulla Paiwand, went to the Governor and offered to act as a guide to his force. The Governor treated the Mulla with kindness and presented him with khilats. Mulla Paiwand however is leading the army under the Governor to places ill-suited for military operations. Thus the troops are now in a position where they can neither advance nor retire, and are in a state of considerable embarrassment. If this statement is to be relied upon, the Governor appears to have endangered himself together with the troops under his command.

4. It is reported that Sardar Abdul Kudus Khan had advanced one stage beyond Showi, but, owing to his being unable to proceed further, has now had to return to his first encampment.

5. Several of the tribal levies, who were wounded in the recent engagements with the Hazaras, have managed to return to Kandahar and its districts. It appears from their statements that the Hazaras are in an excellent state of discipline, and that the troops under the Governor are being rapidly demoralised.

6. Two hundred notifications, together with the same number of letters, have been received from Kabul by the Mullas and preachers of Kandahar. The letters contain instructions as to how the notifications should be observed. The purport of the notification is briefly as follows:-

“When the houses of certain Hazara rebels were plundered, a small book was found in which curses and imprecations were invoked upon the heads of the Ashabs or Khalifas. It appears from this that the Hazaras and other Shias believe in and approve of this, and those Shias who assert that it is not allowable in their religion to abuse the Khalifas, speak falsely, because it is also mentioned in the Hyat-ul-Kutub composed by Mulla Muhammad Bakir, Majlisi, who is one of the most renowned priests of the Shias, that it is allowable to curse the Khalifas. I have, therefore, sent the small book to the Mullas of Shariat, who have ruled that the Shias are to be considered as infidels, and the purport of this award is also set forth in the notification. The notification should, therefore, be read out in the mosques every Friday, and the Shias should be informed of the award given against them.”

After the arrival of this notification, the Shias of Kandahar were summoned to Darbar, and informed of the contents of the notification. They are now being called upon to attend the mosques, and say their prayers along with the Sunis, and to change their faith as Shias, and follow the manners and customs of the Sunis. In case they do not do this, they will all be put to death, and their houses and property will be plundered. The Shias have no alternative but to obey the order. The receipt of the notification has been a boon to the Mullas of the mosques, as merely to fill their own pockets they are calling upon the Shias to attend worship five times a day, and also to defray all the expenses of students in the mosques.

The Sunis of Kandahar have been so emboldened by the notification that they openly call the Shias infidels, and treat them with the utmost contempt. False claims are constantly being preferred against Shias by Sunis, and the Kazis openly show partiality towards the latter. What the result of this treatment will be remains to be seen. It appears that the object of His Highness the Amir in circulating this notification is to excite the Sunis against the Hazaras who are Shias, and thus to induce them to willingly fight against them. The people of Kandahar, however, do not seem to show any sympathy with the Urzagan expedition. The result of this notification is that the animosity and ill-feeling ever existing between the Sunis and Shias, and which has been latent since the time of Amir Dost Muhammad Khan, up to two years ago, has been now revived, and is even more intense than it ever was.

I beg to enclose herewith a copy of the letter from His Highness the Amir, directing the Mullas to observe the notifications.
Translation of a letter addressed by His Highness the Amir to the Suni Mullas and preachers of Afghanistan:

Let it be known to all the respectable Mullas and preachers authorised to say prayers on Friday in the mosques that the infidels, namely, the Shias, who, at the instigation of those devils, the priests, have thought fit to abuse the Khalifas, are also living in Afghanistan. The fact of their observing such a faith is due to their ignorance of the true religion, for if they had any knowledge or understanding, they would not, for the sake of their affection for their spiritual guide (Ali), have abused the fathers-in-law and friends of the Prophet, and would not have used such abuse as a method of worship, and they would not have proved their friendship to be the friendship of the bear. Under the circumstances it is proper for a wise king to warn those of his subjects who have gone astray, and to induce them by way of advice and exhortation to abandon the false faith, and follow the true path of Islam. If their infidelity is due to their ignorance, they ought to grasp the true facts of a true religion. After this they will remain happy, but if they persist in their false faith, they should all be put to death, and their property confiscated in accordance with the divine doctrine and the precepts of the Prophet. I have, therefore with a view to bring this stray flock to the true faith, ordered that they should be preached to and exhorted to give up their false religion. If they do not listen to the advice and preaching of the Sunis, it will be absolutely necessary that they should be put to death. Those Sunis, who will not act willingly in this matter, will also be counted infidels. I have printed and sent you several notifications, containing the orders and precepts to be read to the Shias. What you have now to do is, after the prayer on Friday when all the people are collected together, to ascend the pulpit and read out with as much eloquence as you are capable of, and explain the meaning of the precepts of the Prophet contained therein. All present in the mosque should be given clearly to understand the real meaning of the notification. When this has been done, the Friday prayers should be read, and the usual sermon preached. The reading out of this notification should be considered as an essential part of the worship on Friday. Those Mullas, who neglect to invariably read out the notification on Friday, will be dismissed from their posts. Further, those who are unable to read Arabic or Persian fluently, should not be permitted to perform the duties of a Mulla; the Kazi of the place and the Hakim of the district should examine all the Mullas and preachers, and distribute the notifications to those only who are fully qualified to read them out. A receipt from the preacher should be obtained for the notification in his possession. All Mullas in possession of these notifications should keep them carefully, and in order that the paper on which they are written should not be easily torn or destroyed, a piece of cloth should be affixed to the back of it to prevent its being easily worn out.

 

 

News. D.No.351 F. No.5029, dated Quetta, the 20th August 1892.
From-Major-General Sir James Browne, K.C.S.I., C.B., R.E.,Agent to the governor-general in Baluchistan,
To-The Secretary to the Government of India Foreign Department.
News-letter No.33,
By Khan Bahadur Mirza Muhammad Takki Khan, 13th August 1892.

Travellers coming from Chureh state that, when the Governor approached Kamsan, some Hazaras came in to pay their respects to him. The Governor presented them with khilats, and also handed over to them some Hazaras women, who had been taken prisoners. These men undertook to go and induce other Kamsan Hazaras to submit, and thus returned to their homes unmolested. After this the Governor entered Kamsan with his camp. Three engagements ensued between his troops and the Hazaras. Twelve Hazara heads which had been cut off were sent to Kandahar. In these engagements the casualties on the side of the Governor are said to have been heavy. The Hazaras, having taken refuge in inaccessible places in the hills, have been constantly harassing the Governor’s troops, who were unable to retaliate. The Governor was, therefore, compelled to retire from Kamsan and betake himself to Chureh. A letter has, however, been received from the Governor which runs as follows:-

“A few Hazaras came to pay their respects to me, and I presented them with khilats. They promised to return to their tribe, and induce them to come in. The other Hazaras imprisoned these men for having submitted to me. I have, therefore, moved my camp from Kamsan. We engaged the Hazaras on three occasions, and succeeded in capturing several of their strongholds. A large number of Hazaras was killed or taken prisoners, and a quantity of plunder fell into the hands of my troops. I took possession of Kamsan, and have now returned to Chureh.”

2. Sardar Abdul Kudus Khan has written to Diwan Sadanand, the Revenue Sarishtadar of Kandahar, saying that the scarcity of provisions in his camp has reached such a point that his soldiers are obliged to live on parched wheat. The Sardar has requested Diwan Sadanand to come in person, and arrange for supplies for the camp. The Diwan, however, has postponed proceeding to the Sardar’s camp, pending orders from His Highness the Amir. His is, however, making arrangements for forwarding supplies to the Sardar’s camp.

Recent arrivals from Abdul Kudus’ camp report that His Highness the Amir has sent orders to the Sardar, directing him to postpone attacking the Hazaras until he is reinforced by the regulars and tribal levies from Kabul.

It is rumoured here that the Amir, having summoned to his presence all the Chiefs and notables of Kabul and presented them with khilats, urged upon them the necessity of extirpating, root and branch, the Hazaras who were not only rebels but infidels. The Maliks have undertaken to furnish a force of 50,000 tribal levies for the expedition, and report says that these levies are being raised and despatched to Kabul daily.

4. The inhabitants of Maruf and Salisun have refused to furnish tribal levies (for the Urzagan expedition). The Governor’s son intended to depute some cavalry sowars to coerce them and enforce the recruitment. Muhammad Azam Khan, however, objected to this pointing out that, in case the inhabitants of Maruf and Salisun refused to obey the cavalry sowars, the latter would have no remedy in their hands, and the situation would be extremely critical.

5. The Achakzais of Kadanai have complained to Muhammad Usman Khan, the son of the Governor, against Yakub Khan, Achakzai, for calling upon them to furnish a tribal force for the coercion of the inhabitants of Shorawak. They said that they had paid a large sum of money to defray the expenses of tribal levies for the Urzagan expedition, and now were not in a position to contribute further towards them. Muhammad Usman Khan has reported the matter to his father for orders.